II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > E. Rome > 2. The Republic, 264–70 B.C.E. > d. Conquest of the Mediterranean
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
d. Conquest of the Mediterranean
201–190
 
Annual campaigns were conducted in Cisalpine Gaul against the Cenomani, Insubres, and Boii until 190.  1
 
200–197
 
The SECOND MACEDONIAN WAR. Encouraged by Pergamum, Rhodes, and Athens, the senate resolved to make war on Philip V of Macedon and frightened an unwilling comitia centuriata into declaring war by visions of a renewed invasion of Italy. T. Quinctius Flamininus, supported by both the Aetolian and Achaean Leagues, finally (197) defeated Philip at Cynoscephalae in Thessaly and forced him to make peace (196) on the following terms: surrender of all cities in Greece; payment of 1,000 talents in 10 years; reduction of his navy to five ships; promise not to declare war without permission of Rome. At the ensuing Isthmian Games, Flamininus proclaimed the independence of the Greek cities.  2
 
197–180
 
Regulation of the cursus honorum (succession of offices). After 197, candidates for the consulship had to have held the praetorship. In 180, the lex Villia annalis established minimum ages for magistracies.  3
 
197–155
 
Roman armies invaded Liguria almost yearly until 172. The region was not conquered until 155.  4
 
197–175
 
Two provinces were created in 197—Nearer Spain (Hispania Citerior) in the Ebro Valley, and Farther Spain (Hispania Ulterior) in the Baetis Valley. The Romans began war with the Celtiberians in 195, and with the Lusitanians in 193, and campaigned until victory in 175.  5
 
192–189
 
THE SYRIAN WAR (See 192–189). Failed negotiations with Rome over Greece and Asia led Antiochus III, invited by the Aetolians, to invade Greece, but M. Acilius Glabrio routed his forces at Thermopylae (191).  6
 
190
 
The Roman army, under L. Cornelius Scipio (later Asiaticus) and his brother Scipio Africanus, crossed the Hellespont and defeated Antiochus in the Battle of Magnesia. By the Treaty of Apamea (189), Antiochus was obliged to surrender all European and Asiatic possessions north of the Taurus Mountains, and pay 15,000 talents in 12 years. Rome divided the Anatolian territory of Antiochus between Pergamum and Rhodes and aided Eumenes II of Pergamum against the Galatians (189). In Greece, Rome subjected the Aetolians but left the other cities free.  7
 
171–167
 
The THIRD MACEDONIAN WAR. Uneasy over the dealing in Greece of Philip's successor Perseus, and encouraged by Pergamum, Rome declared war. After several unsuccessful campaigns, the Romans placed L. Aemilius Paullus in command.  8
 
168
 
Battle of Pydna. Paullus defeated Perseus and brought him back to Rome in a triumphal procession. So great was the booty and tribute that Roman citizens were thereafter relieved of direct taxation. Macedonia was broken up into four wholly distinct confederacies. Illyria was reduced to three tributary confederacies, and Epirus was devastated. From the Achaean cities 1,000 of the chief citizens were taken as hostages and kept in Italy for 16 years. Rome likewise dictated to Eumenes of Pergamum, to Rhodes, and to Antiochus IV, who was prevented by the ambassador C. Popilius Laenas from making war on the Ptolemies of Egypt.  9
 
154–133
 
A major rebellion broke out in Spain. The Celtiberians were brought to terms in 151; the Lusitanians, under Viriathus, fought on until 139. The city of Numantia was taken by P. Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus in 133.  10
 
149
 
The tribune L. Calpurnius Piso enacted a lex Calpurnia which set up a permanent commission of senators to hear the suits of provincials to recover from governors money unjustly collected (quaestio de rebus repetundis). Decisions were motivated not by justice but by class selfishness.  11
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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