VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914–1945 > E. Latin America and the Caribbean, 1914–1945 > 3. Central America > e. Nicaragua
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
(See 1912)
 
e. Nicaragua
 
 
1912
 
Liberal revolts against the conservative regime of Adolfo Díaz were on the point of victory when U.S. troops were sent to Nicaragua to help put them down. After the entry of American Marines, the U.S. would essentially rule the country until 1925 through a series of puppet dictators.  1
 
1914, Aug. 5
 
Conclusion of the Bryan-Chamorro treaty with the United States by U.S. puppet Adolfo Díaz, giving the U.S. the right to construct a canal across Nicaragua and lease sites for naval bases. The treaty signified a concession for continued U.S. support of the Conservative regime. Costa Rica and El Salvador at once protested against what they claimed was an infringement of their sovereignty.  2
 
1916, April 13
 
The treaty was ratified by the U.S., with the inclusion of a declaration that its provisions were not intended to affect the rights of other states.  3
 
1916–21
 
EMILIANO CHAMORRO (1871–1966), president.  4
 
1917, March 2
 
El Salvador submitted the question of the Bryan-Chamorro treaty to the Central American Court of Justice, which declared the treaty to be a violation of the treaties of 1907. Nicaragua and the U.S. refused to abide by the ruling, and in the process helped to undermine the authority of the court.  5
 
1917–24
 
An American financial commission, in collaboration with the collector-general of customs, stabilized Nicaraguan finances, increasing U.S. control of the economy.  6
 
1921–23
 
Diego Chamorro, president.  7
 
1923–25
 
Martínez Bartolo, president.  8
 
1925, Aug. 3
 
Carlos Solórzano elected president. Like his predecessors he was a Conservative, but the new vice president, Juan Sacasa (1874–1946), was a Liberal. After the U.S.-supervised elections, the Marines were withdrawn for a brief time.  9
 
Oct. 25
 
A revolt, led by Emiliano Chamorro, forced Sacasa and other Liberals out of the government.  10
 
1926, Jan. 14
 
Solórzano resigned and Chamorro became president. The U.S. refused him recognition.  11
 
May 2
 
When a Liberal insurrection was started by GEN. AUGUSTO CÉSAR SANDINO (1895–1934), the U.S. government hastily landed forces. Dedicated to freeing the country of foreign domination and improving the lot of Nicaraguan peasants, Sandino would fight a war against U.S. Marines and the National Guard for the next eight years. A brief armistice was effected by the U.S. (Sept. 23); Chamorro then resigned.  12
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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