VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914–1945 > E. Latin America and the Caribbean, 1914–1945 > 2. South America > f. Peru > 1927
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
Publication of Tempest in the Andes, by Luis E. Valcárcel. Along with Seven Interpretive Essays on Peruvian Reality (1928), by José Carlos Mariátegui (1894–1930), this text was representative of a growing body of literature published by members of the indigenista movement. The movement, represented politically by APRA, looked to Peru's Inca (supposedly socialist) past for solutions to the current social problems, promoting an Indian-led socialism as the answer to crisis. Following from the tradition of González Prada, these writers called for rebellion by the Indian proletariat or peasantry.  1
José Carlos Mariátegui, known as the father of Latin American Marxism, founded the Peruvian Socialist Party. A writer and journalist, as well as a supporter of indigenismo, Mariátegui proposed a revolutionary path to social change predicated on an alliance between Peruvian workers and peasants in order to overthrow the imperialist order.  2
Mariátegui founded the General Confederation of Peruvian Workers (CGTP).  3
The Great Depression caused Peruvian exports to fall by more than two-thirds. Massive numbers of workers were laid off in the mines and on the sugar and cotton plantations. APRA, growing in popularity both within and outside of Peru, decided it would run candidates in Peruvian elections.  4
1930, Aug. 25
Resignation and flight of Leguía, following a revolt led by Col. Luis Sánchez Cerro. Leguía was captured and tried for corruption, but was acquitted. Sánchez Cerro became provisional president.  5
1931, Feb.–March
A series of revolts obliged Sánchez Cerro to give way to David Samanez Ocampo.  6
Oct. 11
Sánchez Cerro was elected president. Haya de la Torre ran as the APRA candidate, but lost under suspicious circumstances.  7
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.