II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > E. Rome > 1. The Monarchy and the Early Republic, 334 (338)–264 B.C.E. > d. The Regal Period
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
d. The Regal Period
 
The history of early Rome rests on a highly dubious literary tradition, based mostly on oral tradition, and a sketchy archaeological record. The latter suggests that Rome's first residents were herdsmen living in seasonal settlements on Rome's various hills (Palatine, Esquiline, Quirinal) and using the low-lying areas for burials (both inhumation and cremation). The chronology is disputed, but permanent settlements on these hills seem to have been established by the 10th century B.C.E. The early importance of the Tiber ford as the crossroads of the two principal trade routes of central Italy is suggested by the presence of 8th-century Greek geometric pottery in the adjacent area—the later Forum Boarium. By the early 7th century settlements began to move down from the hills to the eastern fringes of the Roman Forum. Around 625, the central area of the Roman Forum was drained and paved. During the second half of the 6th century, an enormous Etruscan-style temple (with three rooms or cellae) was built on the Capitoline hill; in the Forum Boarium remains of a large temple have been found with an Etruscan inscription nearby.  1
Roman tradition said that Romulus founded Rome, and antiquarians later fixed the date at 753. Tradition also said that early Rome was ruled by seven kings—Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Tullius Hostilius, Ancus Marcius, Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullus, and Tarquinius Superbus. The latter was supposed to have been expelled in 505 (509). The last three rulers represent a foreign, Etruscan dynasty responsible for major building projects, among them the construction of a great drainage sewer (cloaca maxima) and the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitol. The tradition also says that the political organization of regal Rome was originally based on three tribes and 30 curiae (wards), and that the kingship was elective not hereditary. The king was advised by a senate of 100 elders (patres). The penultimate king, Servius Tullius, reputed to be of Latin servile descent, is credited with a reorganization of the army (hoplite reform) that divided citizens into five classes and 193 centuries determined by wealth.  2
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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