VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914–1945 > Military Summary > The War at Sea, 1916–1918
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
The War at Sea, 1916–1918
1916
April 24–25
 
A German squadron raided and bombarded Yarmouth and Lowestoft. Submarines also appeared off the Scottish naval bases.  1
 
May 31–June 1
 
Battle of Jutland. On May 30, Adm. Franz von Hipper with the German battle cruiser squadron had been sent to show himself off the Norwegian coast. On May 31, he came into contact with Adm. Sir David Beatty and the British battle cruisers, running southeast before the Grand Fleet. Though decidedly outnumbered, Hipper and the Germans, through superior marksmanship, sank two of Beatty's ships. Beatty, sighting the German High Seas Fleet (Scheer) in battle order, turned north to join Jellicoe and the Grand Fleet. The German Fleet, having been drawn in, met the Grand Fleet just before 6:00 P.M. Jellicoe tried to deploy across Scheer's line of retreat, but Scheer turned about suddenly and made away to the south and then to the east, coming up on the flank of the British, in pursuit. Scheer turned right, launching a torpedo attack, which obliged Jellicoe to fall back. Scheer then sent Hipper and the battle cruisers to attack while the High Seas Fleet effected its escape. Night fell, leaving the two fleets steaming southwest about six miles apart. But at 9:00 P.M. Scheer turned east and made for Horns Reef, forcing his way through the tail end of Jellicoe's forces, still steaming south. The German fleet reached Horns Reef in safety at 3:30 in the morning. Each fleet lost six ships in the Jutland engagement, but the British ships lost totaled twice the tonnage of the Germans. Scheer had to yield to the superiority of the British in capital ships, but in battle cruiser warfare the Germans were completely victorious.  2
 
Aug. 19, Oct. 26–27
 
German raids on the English coast. At the same time German light cruisers slipped through the blockade and ravaged commerce in the Atlantic. The German submarine Deutschland made a trip to the U.S. and back (July 10, 1916, at Norfolk, Va.).  3
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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