VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914–1945 > Military Summary > The Eastern Front, 1914–1915
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
The Eastern Front, 1914–1915
Aug. 17–21
Battle of the Tser and the Jadar. Serbian forces repulsed an Austrian invasion.  1
Aug. 19–20
Battle of Gumbinnen. The first Russian army defeated Gen. Friedrich von Prittwitz's eighth German army, resulting in a German retreat to the Vistula. On learning of this, the German high command dismissed Prittwitz.  2
Aug. 26–30
Battle of Tannenberg. German forces led by Gen. Hermann von François surrounded Gen. Samsonov's Russian forces from the west and defeated them. The Germans took over 100,000 prisoners. Samsonov, in desperation, shot himself.  3
Aug. 26–Sept. 2
Battle of Zamosc-Komarov. Under Gen. Moritz von Auffenberg-Komarow, the Austrians won a great victory over the Russians (Gen. Alexei Brusilov).  4
Sept. 6–15
Battle of the Masurian Lakes. The Germans (Gen., later Field Marshal, August von Mackensen) drove the enemy into the difficult lake country and succeeded in capturing 125,000 men. Completely demoralized, the Russians fell back, while the Germans advanced to the lower Niemen River and occupied the gouvernement of Suvalki.  5
Sept. 8–17
Battle of the Drina. Austrian forces again crossed the Drina into Serbia as the Serbs invaded Syrmia. The Serbs captured Zemlin (Zemun) on Sept. 10, but were unable to continue the advance into Austrian territory. The two opponents fought a long series of desultory engagements on the heights along the river. The Serbs were ultimately forced to retreat and surrender Belgrade (Dec. 2).  6
Sept. 8–12
Battle of Lemberg. Austria abandoned eastern Galicia. The Russians also captured Czernowitz in the Bukovina (Sept. 15) and Jaroslav (Sept. 21). At the same time the Russians invested the key fortress of Przemysl (Sept. 16) and launched an attack upon the passes of the Carpathians leading into northern Hungary (Sept. 24).  7
Oct. 9–20
Battles of Warsaw and Ivangorod. Mackensen advanced as far as Warsaw (Oct. 12), but was obliged to fall back when the Russians counterattacked farther east. The Austrians retreated to Cracow, while the Russians commenced the second investment of Przemysl (Nov. 10) and renewed the invasion of northern Hungary (Nov. 15). Heavy fighting also continued around Cracow (Nov. 16–Dec. 2).  8
Nov. 16–25
Battles of Lodz and Lowicz. For a time the Russians, having brought up reinforcements, threatened to surround the Germans, but in early December the Germans were themselves strengthened by the arrival of new divisions from the western front. Lodz fell to the Germans on Dec. 6.  9
Dec. 3–6
Battle of Kolubara. The Austrians were forced to recross the Serbian frontier as Serbs recaptured Belgrade (Dec. 15), ending the second invasion of Serbia.  10
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.