VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914–1945 > B. World War I, 1914–1918 > 16. The End of the Habsburg Monarchy
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
16. The End of the Habsburg Monarchy
 
By the summer of 1918 the Habsburg Monarchy was already in full process of dissolution. Disorders were common in the larger centers, parliamentary government had had to be given up, and desertions from the army had reached a large scale. In Russia, in France, and in Italy there had been formed Czech, Polish, and Yugoslav legions that were fighting for the Allies, while national councils of these subject nationalities were springing up not only in the provincial capitals but also in Paris and London.  1
 
1918, April 10
 
Meeting of the Congress of Oppressed Austrian Nationalities in Rome. Here the Czech, southern Slav (Yugoslav), Polish, and Romanian representatives proclaimed the right of self-determination, denounced the Habsburg government as an obstacle to free development of the nations, and recognized the need for fighting against it.  2
 
April 21
 
The Italian government recognized the Czechoslovak National Council as a de facto government.  3
 
May 29
 
Secretary Lansing declared the sympathy of the U.S. for the Czechoslovaks and Yugoslavs.  4
 
June 3
 
Allied declarations were made supporting the national aspirations of Poles, Czechoslovaks, and Yugoslavs.  5
 
June 15–24
 
Battle of the Piave. The Austrians crossed the river but were unable to maintain their position. They withdrew again after losing some 100,000 men. From this time on there was steady demoralization of the army.  6
 
June 30
 
Italy and France officially recognized the independence of Czechoslovakia. Britain followed suit on Aug. 13, and the U.S. on Sept.3.  7
In view of the rapid disintegration of the monarchy, the Austrians made a last bid for military victory.  8
 
Sept. 15
 
The Austrian government appealed to President Wilson to call an informal conference to discuss peace. This plea was rejected by Wilson.  9
 
Oct. 4
 
The Austrians joined the Germans in appealing for an armistice (See Oct. 4).  10
 
Oct. 16
 
Emperor Charles proclaimed the reorganization of the non-Hungarian part of the monarchy as a federal state, with complete self-government for the subject nationalities. This move was patently belated.  11
 
Oct. 24–Nov. 4
 
BATTLE OF VITTORIO VENETO. Diaz attacked the Austrian front all the way from the Trentino to the Adriatic. The Austrians held out for a week on the Monte Grappa, but on the lower Piave they collapsed completely. The Italians advanced to Vittorio Veneto (Oct. 30), by which time the Austrian armies were in a state of dissolution, several hundred thousand men being captured and the remainder streaming back toward home. The Italians took Trieste (Nov. 3) and Fiume (Nov. 5).  12
 
Oct. 27
 
Count Julius Andrássy (succeeded Burian as Austrian foreign minister, Oct. 25) notified Wilson that Austria was willing to recognize the rights of the subject nationalities and to make a separate peace.  13
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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