II. Ancient and Classical Periods, 3500 B.C.E.–500 C.E. > D. Classical Greece and the Hellenistic World > 3. The Archaic Period, 800–510 B.C.E. > b. Asia Minor and the Aegean Islands
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
b. Asia Minor and the Aegean Islands
c. 800–680
 
Rise of the Ionian cities. The Ionian cities of Asia Minor were the wealthiest and most advanced Greek city-states in Archaic times and served as conduits for Near Eastern technology and culture entering Greece. The Ionian cities, particularly Miletus and Phocaea, were also leaders in the colonization movement.  1
 
757
 
Miletus colonized Cyzicus on the southern shore of the Propontus.  2
 
680–652
 
Beginnings of Lydian Conflict. King Gyges turned Lydia into the leading power in Asia Minor. He frequently attacked the Ionian cities but was unable to conquer them.  3
 
675
 
The Milesians send a colony to Abydos on the Hellespont.  4
 
630
 
The southern Aegean island of Thera colonized Cyrene in North Africa.  5
 
610
 
With permission of the Pharaoh Psammetichus I, Miletus founded a trading post in the Nile Delta, which developed into the Greek city of Naucratis (See Economy, Society, and Culture).  6
 
609–560
 
Alyattes of Lydia conquered Smyrna, but Miletus and Clazomenae continued to resist. Ionian culture reached its height, particularly in philosophy: Thales, Anaximenes, and Anaximander were all active at Miletus.  7
 
600
 
Phocaea settled Massalia (Marseilles) on the southern coast of Gaul.  8
 
560–546
 
The Lydian king Croesus conquered Ionia, though Miletus maintained its privileged position. Tyrants ruled most of the cities and paid tribute to Lydia.  9
 
546–499
 
Persian rule. Cyrus defeated Croesus in 546. The Persian general Harpagus subdued Ionia and installed pro-Persian tyrants. Miletus continued to enjoy a favored status. The Ionian cities were placed together with Lydia and Mysia in a single satrapy and ruled from Sardis.  10
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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