V. The Modern Period, 1789–1914 > C. The Middle East and North Africa, 1792–1914 > 3. North Africa, 1792–1914 > b. Algeria
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
(See 1799, March 26)
b. Algeria
Rebellion against the Ottomans in Oran and Kabylia was led by Abd al-Qadir ibn al-Sharif, head (muqaddam) of the Darqawiyya Sufi order. The founder of the order, al-Arabi al-Darqawi (d. 1823), condemned the uprising. He had stressed asceticism, but the Darqawiyya continued to be linked with religious political movements and became one of the most important Sufi groups in Algeria. The revolt was crushed by the Ottomans, and its leader fled to Morocco.  1
Conflict between Algeria and Tunisia. The Tunisian ruler Hamuda Bey (1782–1814) besieged the Algerian city of Constantine, but was unsuccessful. Tunisia ceased to pay tribute to Algeria, and peace was finally agreed upon, with Ottoman mediation, in 1821.  2
Kabyle Berber tribal uprising in Oran was prompted by the taxation demanded by the Turks. The revolt was renewed for similar reasons in 1824.  3
Decline of privateering. No slaves, potential sources of ransom and labor, were captured in 1811. Only four European ships had been captured in 1801 and one in 1803. After the 1818 Aix-la-Chapelle Congress on the suppression of piracy, the pressure on Algiers had its effects, bringing an end to corsair threats. The loss of revenue meant increased taxes for the local population and resulted in a series of uprisings throughout the country, many of which were organized by Sufi brotherhoods.  4
Conflict with the United States. Dey Hajji Ali Pasha (r. 1809–15) declared war on the United States when, in July 1812, the country could not pay its annual tribute. On March 3, 1815, the United States authorized naval operations against Algiers and captured two of its ships at sea. The Americans dictated the terms of the treaty when they arrived at Algiers and found the city without its fleet (June 30, 1815). On Dec. 22, 1816, the United States signed a treaty of peace that confirmed that of the previous year, but added two additional provisions for the immediate release of American prisoners and the end of all tribute previously paid to Algiers. The agreement put an end to the Barbary Wars, the assault on U.S. shipping in the Mediterranean that had begun in 1801.  5
1816, Aug. 27
The British and Dutch naval bombardment of Algiers destroyed 33 ships in the harbor and resulted in negotiations for a treaty, signed on Sept. 24, 1816, which released all Christian prisoners and temporarily abolished the slavery of pirate captives.  6
Husayn Dey. The last ruler of Algiers managed to maintain calm in his capital but ruled during a time of relentless rural unrest. He had a series of catastrophic conflicts with European representatives, and his expulsion of the British consul led to the bombardment of Algiers in 1824.  7
Tijaniyya Sufi uprising in Oran against the Turkish bey. Opposition, prompted by increased taxation and government encroachment on local autonomy, continued sporadically until 1828. The order had been founded in Algeria in 1782 by Ahmad al-Tijani (d. 1815).  8
1827, April 29
The fly-whisk incident. Negotiations dragged on over the French grain debt to Algeria incurred by Napoleon (1793–8). In heated discussion, the French consul was struck by Husayn Dey with a fly swatter. The French began a naval blockade in June and utilized the incident as provocation for the eventual occupation of Algiers.  9
1830, July 5
FRENCH OCCUPATION OF ALGIERS. Algiers was captured by a French force of 37,000 troops, and the last dey capitulated. The invasion put an end to the rule of the deys of Algeria who had reigned as virtually autonomous representatives of the Ottoman Empire since 1711. The French established a governor-general as head of their administration in July 1834. Subjugation of the interior continued until 1890. The French occupation lasted until 1962.  10
c. 1830
Three madrasas (Islamic religious colleges) existed at the time of the French invasion. They were located in the cities of Algiers, Constantine, and Tlemcen. Under colonial rule they continued to train students but were carefully controlled by French authorities.  11
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.