V. The Modern Period, 1789–1914 > C. The Middle East and North Africa, 1792–1914 > 3. North Africa, 1792–1914
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
(See 1790–92)
 
3. North Africa, 1792–1914
a. Morocco
 
 
1792–1822
 
MAWLAY SULAYMAN. The Moroccan ruler inherited a decentralized state with a population of 3 million to 4 million inhabitants. Four years of civil war with his brothers and a number of local rebellions weakened his control, as did the shortage of government funds. During the last decade of his rule he became openly hostile to maraboutism, or Muslim saint worship, arguing that the practice deviated from the true faith. By his attack on popular religious practices he sought to curb the growing power of Sufi orders in the country.  1
 
1801, June 14
 
Treaty of peace and commerce with Britain. It built on the progressive development of relations between the two countries during the 18th century, when Britain came to rely on Morocco for food supplies for its troops in Gibraltar in exchange for British arms. The British obtained capitulatory rights, immunity from all taxes, and full jurisdiction for their consuls in legal cases involving their nationals.  2
 
1802–4
 
Berber revolts in various regions. The government launched campaigns to assert its authority over the largely autonomous tribal territories. A major revolt of Berber tribes broke out in the Middle Atlas in 1811, continuing until 1820.  3
 
1815
 
Death of Ahmad al-Tijani, founder of the Tijaniyya Sufi order. He arrived from Algeria in 1789 and was welcomed by Mawlay Sulayman. He lived in luxury and promised his followers both wealth in this world and salvation in the next. His order won many adherents and spread throughout North Africa.  4
 
1818
 
European pressure contributed to the definite ending of Moroccan piracy.  5
 
1820–22
 
REBELLION IN FEZ. Various groups, including the ulama, called for an end to Mawlay Sulayman's rule and were joined by the Wazzani Berbers. Sulayman died before completely crushing the uprising.  6
 
1822–59
 
MAWLAY ABD AL-RAHMAN. At the time of his accession the state was an unstable, fragmented collection of cities and tribes. The army, badly provisioned and organized, consisted of a few slave contingents and tribal troops who were paid only when they fought. The administrative machinery was minimal, and the ruler's income was limited to what he could collect in the lands subject to government authority. The Middle and High Atlas, the Rif, and the southern oases remained largely under local tribal control.  7
 
1823
 
Death of al-Arabi al-Darqawi (b. 1760), founder of the Darqawiyya Sufi order. The movement, which became one of the leading orders in Morocco, exalted poverty and stressed asceticism. It won widespread support among the rural inhabitants and the urban lower classes; its popularity was increased by its use of musical instruments in its rituals. In both Algeria and Morocco the Darqawiyya became involved in political activities and protest movements.  8
 
c. 1830
 
Beginning of penetration of European goods into the Moroccan market. Cheaper European cloth as well as leather products, pottery, candles, tea, and sugar were imported in growing amounts during the 19th century. Some local craftsmen were put out of business, and the country became increasingly dependent on foreign goods.  9
 
1830–32
 
Moroccan troops entered western Algeria in the wake of the French invasion (See 1830, July 5), looting Tlemcen before returning in 1832 under French military threat. Morocco also gave aid to the Algerian rebel leader Abd al-Qadir, a policy that strained French-Moroccan relations.  10
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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