V. The Modern Period, 1789–1914 > B. The French Revolution and Europe, 1789–1914 > 4. Western and Central Europe, 1815–1848 > j. Scandinavia
  PREVIOUS NEXT  
CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
(See 1814, Jan. 14) (See 1814, Jan)
 
j. Scandinavia
 
Regions. Scandinavia consists of the five geographical regions of Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Iceland. Following the Napoleonic Wars, these five regions were controlled by three different governments. Sweden controlled Norway, but it had relinquished Finland to the Russians (1809). Denmark controlled Iceland. Denmark also controlled Schleswig-Holstein despite continued efforts within the latter to gain independence and join the Germanic Confederation.  1
Economics. All five of the Scandinavian countries remained largely agricultural during the first half of the 19th century; however, their products and their means of produce varied. Finland concentrated on the production of grains for the European market. Norway continued to face difficulties with backward farming methods. At the turn of the century, much of Norwegian land was farmed without crop rotation, and Norway did not represent a major exporter of foodstuffs. However, following the repeal of the British Navigation Acts in 1840, Norway became a major exporter of timber for British industry. Denmark managed to maintain steady growth in agriculture. Industry, however, remained limited because it produced primarily for a home market. Sweden experienced growth both in agriculture, which it encouraged through government reforms, and in its only major industry, iron production. The latter suffered from a lack of coal and poor transportation.  2
Scandinavianism. The early part of the 19th century saw both the growth of nationalism and the development of a sense of collective nationalism among the Scandinavian countries. Scandinavianism, or an interest in cooperation among Scandinavian countries, first developed in academia. Students from the various universities began to participate in steamship trips together. Whereas the Finnish students suffered suspensions as the result of their activities, Denmark and Sweden were marked by growing cooperation. In 1828, a Danish steamboat first entered the Swedish harbor of Malmö and, in 1839, scientists from throughout Scandinavia met in Gothenburg. (See Scandinavia)  3
 
1. Sweden and Norway
 
THE HOUSE OF BERNADOTTE (1818-)
Swedish Monarchs: Charles XIII (r. 1809–18), Charles XIV John (Bernadotte, (See 1810) (r. 1818–44), and Oscar I (r. 1844–59).  4
 
1814, Jan. 14
 
Treaty of Kiel. Denmark ceded Norway to Sweden. Sweden sold the island of Guadeloupe to France and thus eliminated its national debt. However, an unfavorable balance of trade resulted in inflation, followed by a reaction and deflation. As a result, agricultural prices first rose and then fell sharply, hurting farmers.  5
 
May 17
 
Norwegian constitution adopted. The constitution established a Storting, or legislative assembly, which met as a body in the Lagting. The Lagting then elected one-third of its members to the Oedlsting, thus dividing the Storting into two houses. The Lagting was elected by men who owned a house or farm, had 300 dollars, or rented a farm for at least five years. The constitution also guaranteed certain rights.  6
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

CONTENTS · SUBJECT INDEX · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD
  PREVIOUS NEXT