V. The Modern Period, 1789–1914 > B. The French Revolution and Europe, 1789–1914 > 1. Overview > e. The Directory > 1799
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
WAR OF THE SECOND COALITION (alliance of Britain and Russia joined by Austria, Naples, Portugal, and the Ottoman Empire) proceeded on both the north and the south fronts:  1
SOUTH (Italian peninsula): Defeating a Neapolitan army commanded by the Austrian general Mack, the French, under Championnet, recaptured Rome (Dec. 15) and took the entire kingdom of Naples. The French occupied Florence (1799), but a series of defeats followed. The allies entered Milan after the Battle of Cassano.  2
April 27
Battle of Cassano. Suvorov foiled MacDonald's efforts to unite his army with the French forces in Italy by defeating him at the Battle of the Trebbia (June 17–19). Suvorov and Melas then defeated French forces under Joubert at Novi as the latter attempted to advance from Genoa. As a result, the French lost control of the Italian peninsula.  3
NORTH (Germany and Switzerland): Archduke Charles, commanding an army of Russian and Austrian troops, defeated Jourdan and the army of the upper Rhine at Stockach (March 25, 1799). Jourdan retreated to France and laid down his command. Charles then defeated Masséna, who replaced Jourdan at the Battle of Zürich (June 4–7). Korsakov replaced Charles and was defeated and driven out of Zürich by Masséna (Sept. 25–30) despite a better tactical position. In the meantime, Suvorov had crossed the Alps to unite with the army under Korsakov but was forced back by French advances. Masséna took Constance and threatened the flank of Archduke Charles, who was preparing the invasion of France from the Rhine. The British and Russian forces that had sought to take the Netherlands failed completely.  4
Oct. 18
The British surrendered all prisoners taken in Holland in return for unobstructed evacuation.  5
Oct. 22
Russians withdrew from the coalition.  6
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.