IV. The Early Modern Period, 1500–1800 > H. Latin America, 1500–1800 > 4. Peru and the West Coast, 1522–1581 > 1540–41
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
1540–41
 
Pedro de Valdivia (c. 1498–1553), with a contingent of Spaniards and Peruvian Indians, penetrated the fertile central valley of Chile and founded Santiago (1541). Mapuche (Araucanian) Indians strongly resisted the invaders.  1
 
1542
 
Creation of viceroyalty and audiencia of Peru.  2
 
1544
 
First viceroy of Peru, Blasco Núñez de Vela, proclaimed the New Laws, with provision for eventual abolition of the encomiendas. The conquerors rebelled and, led by Gonzalo Pizarro, deposed the viceroy and made Pizarro governor. Sayri Túpac became Inca in Vilcabamba, after exiled Almagro partisans assassinated Manco.  3
 
1546
 
Gonzalo Pizarro defeated and executed the viceroy.  4
 
1546–50
 
The crown appointed Pedro de la Gasca as its representative and endowed him with unlimited powers to deal with the rebels. La Gasca adopted a conciliatory policy and won over many from the rebel party. Valdivia came from Chile to support La Gasca, who restored royal authority after defeating Pizarro in the Battle of Xaquixaguana (1548). Gonzalo Pizarro was executed. La Gasca redistributed encomiendas, but some conquerors remained discontented.  5
 
1549
 
Valdivia returned to Chile and expanded Spanish control to the south. Concepción founded (1550).  6
 
1550–51
 
Antonio de Mendoza was named viceroy of Peru but died after a short period in office. The audiencia exercised interim authority, crushing a revolt led by Francisco Girón.  7
 
1553
 
Valdivia died in battle against Mapuche Indians who, led by Lautaro, stopped the Spanish advance.  8
 
1557–61
 
Andrés Hurtado de Mendoza assumed the position of viceroy of Peru. García Hurtado de Mendoza, his son, resumed conquest of Chile. Lautaro died in battle. Spaniards reached Cuyo and founded Mendoza (1561). Spaniards were allowed to enslave rebel Indians.  9
 
1561
 
Sayri Túpac died in Cusco, where he had moved after accepting offer by the Spaniards. Titu Cusi became Inca and agreed to let priests enter Vilcabamba to preach to the Indians. He died in 1571. Túpac Amaru succeeded him as Inca and decided to avoid further contact with the Spaniards.  10
 
1569–81
 
Viceroy Francisco de Toledo organized the administration of the viceroyalty. He instituted the corregimientos (governance districts); the tribute system for the Indian population; the mita, or system of forced Indian labor for, mines; haciendas; and public works. He concentrated natives in towns to facilitate tax collection and Christianization. Toledo performed a general visita, which produced extensive economic and demographic data for the viceroyalty. He also organized a military expedition against Vilcabamba, captured the Inca, and executed him.  11
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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