IV. The Early Modern Period, 1500–1800 > C. The Middle East and North Africa, 1500–1800 > 2. The Middle East, 1501–1808 > a. The Ottoman Empire > 2. Decentralization and External Challenges > 1649, April 28
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
1649, April 28
 
Louis XIV of France issued a proclamation declaring French protection of the Maronite community in Lebanon and instructing French representatives in the region to look after Maronite interests.  1
 
1651, Sept. 2
 
Execution of Kosem Sultan (b. 1585), wife of Sultan Ahmed I and mother of three succeeding sultans. For some 35 years she was one of the most powerful figures in the palace and had a hand in numerous decisions and changes of personnel at the top.  2
 
1654
 
The grand vezir's office, which had been steadily expanding its executive functions, was moved to its own buildings outside the palace.  3
 
1656, April
 
Death of Ridwan Bey al-Faqari, a Circassian Mamluk grandee who dominated the political scene in Egypt for 25 years. He held key offices and was the leader of the Faqariyya political faction, rival of the Qasimiyya faction (Egyptian politics were polarized into these two parties).  4
 
June 26
 
Venetian destruction of the Ottoman fleet at the mouth of the Dardanelles, in the worst Ottoman naval defeat since Lepanto (See 1571, Oct. 7). A new Venetian blockade of the Dardanelles, which caused food prices in Istanbul to soar, was ended a year later.  5
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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