IV. The Early Modern Period, 1500–1800 > C. The Middle East and North Africa, 1500–1800 > 2. The Middle East, 1501–1808 > a. The Ottoman Empire > 1. The Rise to World Empire > 1523
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
Death of Ahi Ahmed Chelebi (b. 1436), chief physician of the empire during the reign of Bayezid I and in Suleyman's early years. He built small hospitals in the villages he owned, founded the first Ottoman medical school, and wrote a work on kidney and bladder stones.  1
Anti-Ottoman revolt in Egypt. The governor Ahmed Pasha declared himself sultan of Egypt, but his power collapsed within a few months and he was killed by local opponents. An expedition headed by the grand vezir Ibrahim Pasha suppressed the disloyal elements in Egypt and reorganized the administration of the province.  2
c. 1524
Death of Muhammad ibn Iyas (b. 1448), an Egyptian historian of Mamluk descent. He wrote an important chronicle (Bada'i‘ al-zuhur) providing a firsthand description of the Ottoman conquest of the Mamluk state.  3
Suleyman's first Hungarian campaign. The Ottoman army invaded Hungary and defeated the Habsburg forces in the Battle of Mohács (Aug. 29) (See 1526, Aug. 29–30). Buda and Pest fell ten days later. The Ottomans withdrew after the Transylvanian notable John Zapolya recognized Ottoman suzerainty.  4
Large-scale insurrections in Anatolia, fed largely by the resistance of Turkomans to the imposition of direct state control and taxation. Renewed Safavid propaganda fanned this discontent. The most serious revolt was led by Kalender Chelebi, whose supporters defeated an initial Ottoman expedition before being crushed (June 1527).  5
Suleyman's second Hungarian campaign. After the Habsburgs took Hungary from Zapolya (1527), Suleyman reoccupied the country and reinstated Zapolya as king. He then mounted the FIRST OTTOMAN SIEGE OF VIENNA (Sept. 27–Oct. 15, 1529) but failed to take the city. His forces withdrew to Istanbul, leaving the Habsburgs to continue ruling the northern and western border areas of Hungary.  6
Suleyman's third Hungarian campaign. Following a new Habsburg siege of Buda, Suleyman led a massive force to deal with the threat and penetrate central Europe. The campaign succeeded in conducting raids in Austria but without forcing the main Habsburg army into battle. The two sides agreed to a peace (June 22, 1533), by which the Habsburgs abandoned their claims to Hungary except for the border areas they had originally occupied and agreed to pay an annual tribute to the sultan.  7
Death of Ahmed Kemalpashazade (b. 1469), one the greatest Ottoman historians and scholars. His chronicle, Tarih-i Al-i Osman (History of the House of Osman), provides one of the most important sources on his period.  8
Ottoman conquest of Baghdad and most of Iraq from the Safavids.  9
1536, Feb. 18
An Ottoman-French commercial treaty granting French subjects extraterritorial privileges in the empire.  10
War with Venice. The Ottoman fleet under Hayruddin Barbarossa imposed Ottoman suzerainty on most of the islands of the Aegean (1537) and raided other Venetian islands in the area. An allied European fleet was defeated near Preveza in the Adriatic (Sept. 1538) and failed to break Ottoman control of the Aegean and Ionian seas. Venice made peace (Oct. 20, 1540), surrendering its last possessions in the Morea and acknowledging Hayruddin's Aegean conquests.  11
Annexation of southern Bessarabia between the Pruth and the Dniester, following a campaign led by Sultan Suleyman against the rebellious vassal prince of Moldavia.  12
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.