III. The Postclassical Period, 500–1500 > A. Global and Comparative Dimensions > 1. Periodization, 500–1000 > c. Interregional Relationships
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
c. Interregional Relationships
 
MIGRATIONS. In the Far Western region of the Eastern Hemisphere, the invasions of the Huns in the 4th century were followed by Germanic migrations and the arrival of additional peoples from the central Asian steppes, such as the Avars and Bulgars in the 6th and 7th centuries. Later invasions and migrations from Scandinavia laid the foundations for new states from the Volga River to England and Greenland.  1
On the frontiers of China, tribal federations continued to rise and fall, exhibiting increasing skill in managing large states. Some, like the Khitans (See 951–60), who ruled much of Mongolia and Manchuria from 907 to 1123, integrated Chinese and nomadic elements. In central Asia, the Uighars became important in interregional trade and cross-cultural contacts.  2
Turkish peoples began to migrate into the Middle East during the Abbasid Caliphate; they became the dominant political and military force in a new-style Muslim society which was emerging by the 11th century.  3
TRADE. Commercial relations along the great Silk Road of Eurasia continued despite the rise and fall of imperial states. By 1000, Muslim traders, Indian merchants, and Chinese products and technologies were important elements in a growing hemispheric network. Maritime trade in the Indian Ocean basin and growing trans-Saharan trade in Africa, both dominated by Muslim merchants, opened vast regions to closer involvement in hemispheric networks.  4
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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