VI. The World Wars and the Interwar Period, 1914–1945 > D. North America, 1915–1945 > 1. The United States > 1919
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
The wartime suppression of civil rights underlay the founding of the American Civil Liberties Union.  1
Racial violence erupted in dozens of cities. The worst confrontation flared in Chicago, where nearly 500 persons were injured and more than 38 died during the so-called Red Summer of 1919.  2
The Communist Labor Party and the Communist Party of the United States formed. Although the two groups could claim little more than 70,000 members, they became the target of a vigorous anti-Red campaign.  3
When 450,000 coal miners went on strike, the Wilson administration used the wartime Lever Act to break the strike.  4
March 2
Senate round-robin, declaring the opinion of 39 senators that only after the establishment of peace should the League of Nations concern the negotiators.  5
July 10–1920, March 19
Treaty of Versailles (See June 28) before the Senate. Strong objections developed to the treaty. Wilson refused to accept amendments or reservations. On Nov. 19 the Senate defeated the treaty with and without reservations. Finally on March 19 (1920) the treaty with reservations was rejected by a vote of 49 to 35. Wilson then vetoed a joint resolution of Congress declaring war with Germany at an end. A similar resolution was passed in July 1921 and signed by Harding.  6
Sept. 22–1920, Jan. 8
Steel strike. Although the public sympathized with the steel workers, the strikers were defeated.  7
Oct. 28
The National Prohibition Act, commonly known as the Volstead Act, passed, over President Wilson's veto. It was strengthened by amendments of 1921 and 1929.  8
As part of a federal campaign to rid the country of radicals, 300 persons were deported to the Soviet Union, including the activist Emma Goldman.  9
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.