V. The Modern Period, 1789–1914 > I. Latin America, 1806–1914 > 2. The Wars of Independence, 1806–1872 > i. Guatemala and Central America
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
i. Guatemala and Central America
1811–18
 
In the captaincy general of Guatemala (Guatemala, San Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Chiapas), liberals campaigned for free trade, a more representative government, and the dissolution of fueros and monopolies. The captain general repressed them and subdued other rebellions in the provinces of San Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua (1811–12). Central American liberals were mainly creole professionals allied to the leading creole families.  1
 
1821, Sept. 15
 
Influenced by the launching of the Plan de Iguala in Mexico, a junta of liberals and moderates convened in Guatemala City to declare independence, with the captain general as leader.  2
 
1822
 
Union with Mexico under Iturbide was discussed in every province. Guatemala and Chiapas decided to join independent Mexico. El Salvador rejected union either with Mexico or Guatemala. Some cities in Honduras and Nicaragua accepted union with Guatemala, but refused to submit to Mexico. Others claimed total autonomy. Costa Rica agreed to separation from Spain and sought union with Colombia. Conservatives were prone to annexation to Mexico, whereas liberals rejected it and favored an independent republican federation.  3
Iturbide, as emperor of Mexico, sent a Mexican army to advance the annexationist cause.  4
 
1823
 
After military invasion, El Salvador and Costa Rica republicans capitulated.  5
 
June 24
 
Upon learning of the abdication of Agustín I, a Central American congress decided to form the United Provinces of Central America, independent from Mexico and integrated by Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua.  6
 
August 20
 
Mexico recognized the new political entity.  7
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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