V. The Modern Period, 1789–1914 > I. Latin America, 1806–1914 > 2. The Wars of Independence, 1806–1872 > f. Peru and Upper Peru (Peru and Bolivia)
  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
f. Peru and Upper Peru (Peru and Bolivia)
The inhabitants of Chuquisaca and La Paz, declaring loyalty to Ferdinand VII, established juntas in their cities and deposed Spanish authorities. Royal troops soon crushed the movements. Viceroy José de Abascal y Sousa (1809–16), with the support of the Limeño aristocracy, made the Viceroyalty of Peru the stronghold of royalism in South America.  1
Buenos Aires's declaration of independence gained widespread support in Upper Peru, whose population initially welcomed a Buenos Aires military expedition, led by Gen. Juan José Castelli. His attempts to suppress Indian tribute, however, antagonized the upper classes. His troops sacked Indian towns and behaved as an occupying force. Royalists defeated Castelli's army and retook control of Upper Peru (1811). They sought Indian support, giving weapons to the kurakas to distribute among Indian peasants.  2
In Cuzco, kuraka Mateo Pumacahua mobilized a large Indian army on behalf of creole patriots imprisoned in Cuzco. The royalist army defeated and executed him (1815).  3
Two Buenos Aires expeditions invaded Upper Peru but disintegrated as soldiers plundered the countryside and royalists defeated them. Disenchanted with the Buenos Aires–led independence movement, Upper Peru patriots sought to develop their own independence forces, while Buenos Aires military leaders altered their strategy for liberating Peru.  4
Royalists eradicated guerrillas from the countryside, and reestablished their dominance in Upper Peru.  5
After completing preparations in Chile, San Martín transported his forces to Peru by sea. Marquis de Torre Tagle, who approved of San Martín's conservatism, promoted aristocratic support for him and proclaimed independence in Trujillo. The viceroy abandoned Lima, and San Martín entered the capital.  6
1821, July 28
San Martín proclaimed the INDEPENDENCE OF PERU and assumed the title of protector of Peru. Peruvian Liberals opposed San Martín's monarchical plans.  7
After meeting Simón Bolívar (1783–1830) in Guayaquil, San Martín resigned and withdrew his troops.  8
After struggles among the proponents of independence in Lima, a new government was established and invited Simón Bolívar to Peru. Antonio José de Sucre (1795–1830), his closest lieutenant, moved to Lima with Colombian troops, and Bolívar followed, being proclaimed dictator.  9
Bolívar and Sucre led their troops into the highlands, where they defeated the royalist army at Junín (Aug. 24) and at Ayacucho (Dec. 9), which secured the independence of the new republics of South America. The Spanish leaders agreed to withdraw their armies from Peru. Sucre led his troops to liberate Upper Peru and convened a congress at Chuquisaca.  10
1825, Aug. 6
Anxious to preserve their autonomy from the hegemonic pretensions of Buenos Aires, Upper Peru patriots resorted to Sucre's protection to proclaim the INDEPENDENCE of the new republic of Bolívar (BOLIVIA).  11
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.