V. The Modern Period, 1789–1914 > B. The French Revolution and Europe, 1789–1914 > 1. Overview > d. The National Convention: The Revolution's Most Radical Phase
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  The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.
 
 
d. The National Convention: The Revolution's Most Radical Phase
1792, Sept. 21–1795, Aug. 22
 
THE NATIONAL CONVENTION, longest lived of the revolutionary assemblies. It was elected by male suffrage and composed entirely of republicans (749 members, of whom 486 were new men). Parties: The Plain had a majority but was dominated by the Girondists and then by the Mountain. The Girondists now formed the Right, and the Mountain, under Robespierre, Danton, and others, formed the Left.  1
 
Sept. 21
 
Monarchy abolished.  2
 
Sept. 22
 
Republic proclaimed. (First day of Year I of Republican calendar.) On Sept. 25 the Republic was declared “one and indivisible.”  3
 
Oct. 2
 
Committee of General Security was formed, with undefined police powers.  4
 
Nov. 6
 
Allies in retreat following a French victory by Gen. Dumouriez at Jemappes.  5
 
Nov. 19
 
The Decree of Fraternity offered French assistance to people who wished to overthrow their governments. Other countries, including England, feared risings. Irish nationalists sought French aid as a result of this declaration.  6
 
Dec. 4
 
Convention declared the death penalty for anyone advocating monarchy.  7
 
Dec. 8
 
Convention repealed suspension on free trade in grain but outlawed grain exports. Nov. and Dec. also saw instances of price fixing and demonstrations among peasants in the Beauce region.  8
 
Dec. 10
 
Louis XVI tried before the Convention. Girondists suggested a referendum to the people (Dec. 27), but on Jan. 14, 1793, the Convention decided there would be no referendum and found Louis guilty. Louis sentenced to death by a slim majority (Jan. 20) and executed on Jan. 21.  9
 
Dec. 16
 
The death penalty to be administered for threatening the unity and integrity of the Republic.  10
As a result of a struggle between the Girondists and the Mountain, all power in the Convention centered in three institutions: (1) the Committee of General Security; (2) the Paris Commune, reorganized on basis of male suffrage and acting through its committee led by Chaumette and Hébert; and (3) the Committee of Public Safety. The latter was composed of 9 (later 12) members (including Robespierre, Danton, and St. Just) with dictatorial power.  11
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Copyright © 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Maps by Mary Reilly, copyright 2001 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

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